This section provides abstracts, brief descriptions, and links to peer-reviewed publications and creative works published by Dr. S. Stanford. Please click the Read More or the image button to access and be able to read the full publication.
1. Johnson, S.N. (2013). Direct Line Tropics. ASHA Leader, 18(11).
This article addresses how the author developed an international private practice services to underserved Caribbean countries without leaving the United States. The article discusses how other clinicians in the United States and international can replicate the procedures conducted by the author in order to provide telepractice speech-language services to other countries. This article also discusses the method in which the author established and implemented the telepractice services as well as the limitations to providing services internationally.
This research study and paper examined the attitudes and perception of Communication Disorders in special educators in the Bahamas. An interview, observation field notes and a questionnaire comprised of open-ended responses and a rating scale captured the views, pedagogical knowledge and skills and perceptions of 17 special education teachers who educate children with special needs and communication disorders pre and post a simulated workshop. The findings revealed four emerging themes related to perceptions and previous personal experiences in which may affect their respective teaching approaches. Findings of the study also revealed that providing special educators with workshops and other professional development opportunities to learn and discuss difficulties children with special needs and communication disorders may experience, increased their teaching approaches, changed some perceptions and introduced new techniques that were later actively incorporated. The special educators of this study expressed a need for more resources to assist them in effectively educating all children with special needs and communication disorders. The special educators attributed limited resources such as professional development to their motivation or lack thereof to functionally engage and educate children with special needs and communication disorders.
3. Johnson, S. N., & Haria, P (2014). Effect of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Approach on At-Risk Students Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills. World Congress on Special Needs (WCSNE) Conference Proceeding - Extended Abstract, 177-178.
This publication discusses the co-authors presentation on the benefits and necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration among related service provider and education professionals. Within the public-school system, literacy – specifically reading and phonological awareness skills and training is an area of deficit and need for minority and at-risk students. However, educators are at times unsure of how to address the needs of students presenting with phonological awareness and reading delays. Therefore, this publication contributed to the topic of innovative and successful methods to addressing the literacy needs professionals and practitioners seek answers for. This publication presented discussion on how collaborative methods among educators and related service providers (speech pathologists) can; 1) increase the phonological awareness and reading pedagogical knowledge and skills of educators and speech and language pathologists from different standpoints and methods of implementation, and 2) increase the phonological awareness and reading skills of at-risk school-age children who benefit from the teacher collaboration. Overall, this publication contributed to the literacy field, education, special education, cultural teaching styles, and speech-language pathology intervention by introducing preliminary data of interdisciplinary collaborations between Speech-Language Pathologists and General Educators. This presentation, research, and publication provide the first data of its kind to address phonological awareness and literacy skills in a collaborative, co-teaching method.
4. Johnson, S. N., & Haria, P. (2015). Examining Effectiveness of Interdisciplinary Collaborative Approach on At-Risk First Graders’ Phonological Awareness Skills. International Dyslexia Association Conference Proceedings.
This publication contributed to the topic of innovative and successful methods to addressing the phonological awareness skills of school-age children at-risk for reading delays pre-and-post the interdisciplinary, collaborative intervention. This publication presented discussion on how collaborative methods amongst educators and related service providers (speech pathologists) can increased the phonological awareness and reading pedagogical knowledge and skills of twelve at-risk school-age children. This publication contributed to the literacy field, education, special education, cultural teaching styles, and speech-language pathology intervention by introducing preliminary data of interdisciplinary collaborations between Speech-Language Pathologists and General Educators.
5. Johnson, S.J., & Haria, P. (2015, December). The Effects of Ipad Based Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills Intervention from an Interdisciplinary Approach on First Grade Students with Reading Delays. Invited Publication International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE), 4(2), 633-637.
This research study and publication investigated the effects of the use of an IPad-based collaborative instructional method on six first graders identified as at-risk for reading delays. The collaborative instructional method was implemented by six educators and communication disorders graduate students randomly assigned into three dyads in two phases. Phase one of the instructional method focused on training the dyads on the instructional methods; while phase two focused on implementing the instructional method on first-graders identified as at-risk for reading delays. The researchers collected and analyzed the means for pre and post student data on the Profile of Phonological Awareness. The results of the study indicates that the use of an IPad-based collaborative instructional method can yield positive results and noted improvement for students at risk for or experiencing reading delays.
6. Payne, K. T., & Johnson, S.N. (2015). African American Students' Performance on a Praxis Simulation: Toward an Understanding of the Performance Gap. Journal of the National Black Association of Speech-Language and Hearning (JNBASLH), 10(2), 6-17.
This publication investigated the impact of Praxis Simulations on the attitudes, perception, and performance of African American graduate level students at Howard University within the Communication Sciences and Disorders department. This publication addresses key areas of the nationwide recommended Praxis that is required for Speech Pathology clinical certificate of competence licensure that are found to be low areas of performance for African American students. In addition, this publication discusses suggestions and implications of how to address the performance gaps between African-American graduate students and other populations.
7. Stanford, S. N., & Gay, A.(2017). Increasing Clinical Critical Thinking Skills through Short Travel Abroad Experiences for Graduate CSD Students. ASHA SIG Perspectives, 2(SIG 11), 60 - 72.
This publication discusses the examination of the attitudes and perception of Communication Disorders in special educators in the Bahamas. CThe findings presented in this publication revealed emerging themes related to perceptions and previous personal experiences in which may affect the respective teaching approaches of special educators in the islands. As well as, detailed discussion and documentation of the difficulties children with special needs and communication disorders may experience and how best to address them. This publication discusses methods to increase special education teaching approaches, new classroom implementation techniques. It also provides resources and concrete evidence to assist educators in effectively educating all children with special needs and communication disorders. Overall, the publication contributes to the changing the awareness and perceptions of the stigmas about special education and communication disorders that exist in the Caribbean.
8. Stanford, S. N., & Muhammad, B. (2018). Critical Race Theoretical Perspective on the Correlation between the school-to-prison pipeline and the prevalence of low-SES minority students of color with Language and Learning disorders in Special Education: A Silent Epidemic. American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy, and the Law, 27(1),
This publication discusses the authors examination of the correlation between minority students of color with language and learning disorders and the school to prison pipeline from a critical race theory perspective. The publication was written in nine parts of which detailed the impact of various external factors that perpetuate the school-to-prison pipeline in minority students of color. More specifically, Part III of the publication contributed to a limited field of knowledge on the presence and impact of language and learning disorders in African-American students. Part IV detailed the development and use of zero tolerance policies in schools and the analysis of these policies. Thereby contributing to a scarcity of research on how zero-tolerance policies are disproportionately doled out to minority students more than their white counterparts. Part V contributed to the current research in the field of social justice that related to the disproportionate and subjective harsh disciplinary laws implemented in low-SES Title I schools within the United States and how it may be fueled by symbolic and institutional racism practices. The contribution of Parts VI-VIII of the publication provides new knowledge to the social justice field, communication disorders and special education profession on the school-to-prison pipeline and its correlation to special education systems for minority students with language and learning disorders. Lastly, Part XI of the publication contributed to the areas of social justice, special education, communication disorders, criminal justice, and enforcement through its discussion of recommendations for reducing disproportionate harsh disciplinary actions in low SES Title I schools.
9. Stanford, S. N. (2018). Understanding the disproportionate representation of minority youth in special education and the juvenile justice system: A fundamental discussion for the justice of minority youth. Howard League for Penal Reform Early Career Academics Network Bulletin, 36, 19-23.
This publication contributes to the limited knowledge that the current research on youth involved with the criminal justice system has not yet extended analysis to factors like the presence of Cognitive-Communicative Disorders (CCD) and its impact on criminal interaction and academic success. This writing contributes to my continued research aim on the scarcity in the research, findings, and current initiatives that have investigated and/or analyzed the influence of CCD on the risk of problem behaviors (CTB), special education and the school-to-prison pipeline, and recidivism among low-SES juvenile minority youth. In addition, the publication of this manuscript contributes to developing and expanding the knowledge of the need of Cognitive-Communicative Disorders intervention and the lack thereof. This publication is contributing to the fields of social justice, criminology, juvenile justice, communication disorders, law, and sociology by highlighting how untreated cognitive-communicative disorders can influence an individual’s life decisions from a young age and set trajectories that determine whether or not a child will grow up to be a productive and law abiding adult within society.
Scholarly Refereed Publications
1. Stanford, S. N. (2019, February 04). The Silent Epidemic: Cognitive-Communicative Disorders & Justice-System Involvement of Youth . Campaign for Youth Justice : http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/2019/item/the-silent-epidemic-cognitive-communicative-disorders-justice-system-involvement-of-youth
2. Stanford, S. N. (2019, March 12). Black Girls in the Delinquency System: Defiance or Disorder? Coalition for Youth Justice: http://www.juvjustice.org/blog/1117
3. Stanford, S. N. (2019, June). Casualities of Misunderstanding: Communication Disorders and Juvenile Injustice. ASHA Leader, Featured Article
4. Stanford, S. N. (2019, June 11). A Demand for Humanity: When They See Us and Police Coercion of Black Youth with Language and Learning Challenges Juvenile Law Center: https://jlc.org/news/demand-hiumanity-when-they-see-us-and-police-coercion-black-youth-language-and-learning
5. Stanford, S. N. (2019, June 12). Who Was Really “Wilding” When They See Us Highlights The Wrongful Conviction of Black Youth with Language and Learning Disorders. Coalition for Youth Justice: http://www.juvjustice.org/blog/1127
Chapter in books
10. Johnson, S. N. (2014). Chapter 4. Speech Hearing and Communication in Grand Bahama Early Intervention Resource Guide for Children with Special Needs. Grand Bahama Downs Syndrome Society, 43-55.
This publication was created in conjunction with the Freeport, Grand Bahamas, Bahamas Downs Syndrome Society as a free resource to parents and cargivers of children with Downs Syndrome and other cognitive disabilites. The publication addresses areas of medical concern, occupational therapy, and speech and language pathology red flags, definitions, treatment suggestions, and frequently asked question. The author was invited to write Chapter 4 of this publication. This book and the chapter I contributed was written for parents/guardians who are raising children diagnosed with Downs Syndrome to obtain a baseline understanding of speech and language development, speech and language delays and disorders, and how to provide at-home intervention. My chapter discusses speech and language development milestones, red flags, intervention techniques, and frequently asked questions. This book chapter has been distributed all over the island of Freeport, Bahamas to over 100 medical clinics, preschools, and churches. As a result, this book and my contributing chapters has reached, been read, and provided awareness to thousands of residents of Freeport, Bahamas. This book and my contributing chapter was the first book written and distributed to the population that addressed communication disorders and what to expect and do. The contributing chapter is one of the first chapters contributed to the slowly evolving acceptance to special needs in the Bahamas. The book’s release was announced by the Prime Minister of the Bahamas and received significant support.
This publication is a creative works document that is designed to address reading comprehension, articulation, expressive and receptive language, social and pragmatic skills of children at-risk for or experiencing communication disorders/delays and literacy disorders/delays.
This publication is a creative works adopted from the former Department Chair Dr. Wilhelmina Wright-Harp. The newsletter documents highlights, accomplishments, research, and best practices of students, faculty, and clinical staff in the Communication Sciences and Disorders department at Howard University. The document was updated upon my adoption of the works and revised to be digital, more engaging of the students, and interactive.